Zvenigorod. Assumption Cathedral
The first mention of O Zvenigorod occurs in spiritual literacy Ivan Kalita (1339.), the testament Zvenigorod and adjacent lands to their second Son Ivan. But South our Name Cities suggests that Zvenigorod On a high bank R. Moscow There was much earlier. our princes, Leaving out Kyiv For the distant northeast to the Zalessky lands, they founded new cities and called them and the rivers of the Kyiv and Chernigov names: Pereslavl and River Truzh, Zvenigorod. These names are known in geography Kyivan Rus: South Pereyaslavl On the river Truzh, Kyiv and Chernigov Zvenigorod. Especially vigorous City-based activities Discern Vladimir-Suzdal Prince Yury Dolgoruky. Many new towns founded it and strengthened old settlements in the Zalessky lands, including Moscow. Most likely, and Town, How to call an ancient fortifications on a high hill with steep slopes on the shore Rivers of Moscow, also got my name Zvenigorod during the reign Yuri Dolgoruky in honor of one of the same names Southern Cities. Archaeological excavations on Town v Zvenigorod Confirm the existence of the city at 12 – 13 centuries. Already then he was gained low shallows, Behind them were located small land. After death Ivana (Son Kalita) v 1364. Zvenigorodsky will go to the Moscow prince Dmitry Donsky, Then his second Son Yury Zvenigorodsky. Prince Yuri Zvenigorodsky Lived in the city over 30 years and with his name is connected Flewing Zvenigorod. It was a time when Zvenigorod becomes Significant Economic, Political and religious Center. V late 14 – early 15 centuries. The city is strengthened.
On Town Building White Assumption Cathedral (1417 – 1422.). Near the Cathedral – Princely Palace. Myself Town Was gained trellis from 2 to 8th m Height and T 20 m wide. On the inside, the shafts were paved with small stones, which allowed defenders Town Easy to run up on the shafts on these stones. The ridge of the shaft was low, in human growth, Oak Wall. In the northeast, the shafts broke up, giving way to a pass tower.
Trees of the Zvenigorodsky town
The defense of the fortress contributed a lot The steepness of the slopes of the hill, where stood Town. At the highest place Town The traditions of Rannoymozkov temples were built White Assumption Cathedral Single-eyed, cross-free, four-pole. Cathedral is high, stored and strict. All architectural details work on it: Thin blades, Membership facades vertically, bundled blades on the corners of the Chetverka, narrow Sugal windows and thin rollers, their framing, promising portals with kilevoid completion. Originally spinning facades ended Cilent Chomarara. Above the bunches of angular blades were embarrassed Diagonal bumps. Pedestal Barabana It was surrounded by small Decorative Kokoshni. Currently, bumps and decorative kokoshniki are hidden later Four-page roof. Horizontally facades and apse of the cathedral at half the height of the ribbon of carved stone Ornament, giving strict architecture cathedral. Narrow blades of facades, cutting the ornamental belt, emphasize solemnity and Sleepiness appearance Assumption Cathedral.
Inside the cathedral was Scheduled. Yuri Zvenigorodsky For the painting of the cathedral invites the best masters of his time – Andrei Rublev with students. Andrei Rublev was painted Cathedral iconostasis. Currently three (from seven), surviving icon "Zvenigorodsky China", Stored in Tretyakovskaya Gallery of Moscow. Presumably, Students Rublev Belong partially preserved Frescoes on western faces of oriental pillars. Modern iconostasis refers to 17th century. At the end 14th century not far from Zvenigorod on the mountain Stordless was founded Savvino–Storozhevsky monastery. Funds for the construction of the monastery were allocated Yuri Zvenigorodsky, And the abbot of the monastery became Savva – The confessor of Prince Yuri. In the times of Tatar-Mongol invasion Zvenigorod It was twice Razon (1382g –Tochtamiam, 1408g. – Emergency). But the city is fast restored His economic condition. In The second quarter of the 15th century V Moscow Prince Large feudal deployed Interdudinal and Zvenigorod princes played in it one of the main roles. V 1425. The older brother of Yuri Zvenigorodsky died Vasily I. According to the testament of them Father Dmitry Donsky Moscow throne was supposed to go to Yury. Vasily I his receiver appointed his juvenile son Vasily II. Prince Yuri refused to recognize the right of his nephew Vasily Second on the throne. Two warring groupings were formed: supporters Vasily Second and supporters Yuri Zvenigorodsky. Label on great Prince Horde Gave young Vasilia. Began a fierce struggle for power, laughing over 30 years. V 1433. on Wedding Vasily Second Were public Offended Sons Yuri Vasily Kosy and Dmitry Shemyak. In the same year Yuri Zvenigorodsky Gone S army on Moscow And, broken Troops Vasily Second, occupied Moscow And declared himself Great prince Moscow. Moscow population did not support him and he returned to Zvenigorod. A year later he took again Moscow, But, visiting the Moscow Prince of all 2 months, suddenly died. After his death, this feudal war with varying success was carried out His sons. One of them – Vasily Kosovoi was captured and blindly blinded. The same fate was subjected to Vasily Vasily, captured Dmitry Shemyaka. After that Vasily Second began to call Vasily dark. Dmitry Shemyaka Soon was poison. After the end of this bloody crossbar Zvenigorod Was under Power of Moscow, A C 1462. PO1492. Zvenigorodsky Delo owned the last specific Zvenigorod Prince Andrei Big, a son Ivan the third. After death Andrei Big Zvenigorod was finally attached to Moscow. From the end 15 – 16 centuries. Zvenigorod comes to launch. V 17V. Zvenigorod badly suffered during the period Polish-Lithuanian intervention. V 1606. Lhadmitry 1 passed with his army through Zvenigorod, loosened him I Savvino-Storozhevskaya monastery. V 1608. Zvenigorod robil Lhadmitry 2. V 1618. Polish Korolevich Vladislav about 2-H weeks Standing B Zvenigorod. Finally Land and devastated Zvenigorod I could not recover for a long time. In The second half of 17v. Life in Zvenigorod is settled due to growth and influence Savvino-Storozhevsky Monastery, Started by a country residence Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.