In Tibet, we often travel – I mean astral flights. We own this technique in excellence. The soul is afraid to leave the body, all the time remaining a silver thread associated with him, and yet it is free and can fly, where it will do, with the speed of her own thought. T. Lobsang Rampa
Brown space of the greatest highland crossed wrinkles crowned with snow caps of the ridges. Only rare clouds shadow the alpine desert at one and a half million square kilometers. In the north, she is riddled by the seven-haired snowy walls of Kunlun, in the south – Himalayas, in the West – Caucarma and Sino-Tibetan Mountains – in the East. Five or six million people living on Tibet, mostly bored in the south-east, where the huge height of the highland is replaced by the mining valleys. Two threads stretched to g yes. One, looping among the fans of the snowy ridges in the upper reaches of the Great Asian Rivers, – Through Kam, the country of rocks, gorges and coniferous forests. Another – from the Mining Steppe State of AMDO in the northeast crosses the Male-Male Desert of the Central Hotbetic Plateau Canting. In the south, in the Green Valley of the Zangpo River (Brahmaputra), in the country of Bod-software, as with ancient times they called the Native Tibet, the land of bots, they converge. These two highways almost half a century extended to
Lhasa on the ancient caravan roads of the People’s Liberation Army of China, which laid the way to Tibet.
. Since the XVIII century AMDO, which has a significant part of the Mongols among the population, enters the Chinese province of Qinghai. Eastern part of Kama is included in Sichuan Province. The rest of the territory forms a Tibetan autonomous area, where, together with two million Tibetans (this is less than half of the ethnos), only a small number of Chinese and unrecorded population of numerous garrisons live. Such Tibet on a political map.
The best religion in U-Tsan, the best men in the chamber, the best horses in AMDO Tibetan saying.
. Everyone was bad in humans, for the leader lack them. They asked the deity of the sky to send one of his sons to Earth – and it turned out. His bore sacred mountain. Winning the throne at horse races, he accepted the name of Gees, died in armor and conquered settlements and demons of the country in all four sides of the world. Holy Poet-hermit of Milarepa in the XI century made his songs about him. Who served as a prototype of the hero, whose name is akin to Iranian Caesar and Latin Caesar – Unknown. Only legends give a hint by tying his activities with the country of Amdo. But it is not so important. It is important that Geeser Khan, the spirit of militant Tibet, more than a thousand years ago, unprecedented audacity shocked the foundations of the Chinese Leviathan!
. In AMDO, hardworking, like ants, the Chinese through the sad mountain steppe dragged the railway, despicable in the migrating town of Golmud. However, the fact that most of their corrective labor camps were concentrated in Qinghai, simplified the organization of this case. Further, through the surrounding city of sands, in the direction of shining with white caps of a kun-moon, a Qinghai Tibetan highway runs away. This is the only year-round Lhasa highway, for in the spring and summer Sikik-Tibetan road, the hardest serpentine, blurs with monsoon rains. Continuously on the highway flow of cars, in the body of which food and industrial goods are received on Tibet, from needles to televisions. Broken skins are taken back.
The road, in dry lifeless ridges crossing three passes, passes through the most insane edges of the world. Height gives you to know about yourself a constant feeling of nausea, shortness of breath and heartbeat. Ruthless mountain sun forces the use of dark glasses. Sometimes flying crowd roadside villages from several whitewash stone houses. Flushed on the distils road workers in the ruins and vitro: the slightest breeze here will penetrate the bones of a frivolous traveler who did not capture warm clothes in the mountains. Scroll from time to time Baracki military unit. And again the stone and the rocks.
Near the 5200 meter pass through the tangla ridge, crossed the middle of the Highlands, is now the most high-alleged town of Wezuan. Here more than a century ago, nomads attacked the famous third expedition. M. Przhevalsky. Here, in fact, the Tibetan autonomous region begins.
Next to the south begin to meet nomads-Tibetans in national costumes. The features of them are much less mongoloid, rather than the Chinese and Mongols. This is especially sharply pronounced with the reputation of the braratives and the robbers of the natives of Kama – high, narrowly, as the inhabitants of the Mediterranean. Much more mongoloids lowered southern Tibetans, Bod-Pa.
On the nomads – latch-chubs-tailed on the grass belt on the fur, high cloth boots with lowered noses on the felt sole, colorful feeders and widespread felt hats, like Nepalese Gurkchov. Some have army sneakers on the legs, dark glasses. Here are the parking lot – a few black nomadic tents, each of which is two woolen panels, with a smoke gap.
At the bottom, they are covered by the wind protecting the stone from the stone, on which they are stuck for drying cakes from the Bracian manure with straw. This argal, the only type of fuel on the highlands. In general, without a shaggy inhabitant, a man could not survive on Tibet: Yak gives and wool for textile clothing, manufacturers of tents, felting shoes, and the skin on the chubs and belts, and argall, and oil. True, Bracheus milk do not drink – it is too fat. Consume only milk of his obstacles with ordinary cattle. The highest passes that are not able to wheel transport, Yak passes with a load of up to five pounds, eats snow instead of water and withstands 50-degree frosts.
Near the tents naked children play, one or two elderly follow the order. Most of the adults are in the pasture: all the tribes have their own territory for nomads, and only the Chinese managed to stop the constantly arising clashes for the areas of grazing.
In the middle of the tent there is a focus, near which bowls for tea and chowers with zsamba (flour from roasted barley). In the corner you can see deep wooden cylinder barrels, an oil and a chaem (the one that is smaller) with pushes inserted inside.
. Leaving the old camp, nomads make a farewell offering of the spirit of fire – a chinful of barley flour, and, looking around, look through the shoulder, whether smoke smokes. If so, the sighs of the victim adopted.
Not far from the town of Hay, the ancient Northern Fortress of Tibetans, one hundred and twenty years ago, Przhevalsky, the first of Europeans almost passed Highlands from the north, was still forced to turn. After half a century in the same place, the expedition of Nikolai Roerich was detained.
For sure black spiders on long legs, black tents of Tibetans poured. Cost among swampy plains. On the horizon lake and dead mountains. Horses slide and get cold among ugly bumps. Nor bird nor beast. So recorded the artist Nikolay Roerich in the diary. His Central Asian Expedition passed a long way: from India: Ladakh, Kashgaria, Altai, Mongolia. And here, on Tibet, she was detained on the way back, having extended a disastrous winter of 1927/28 in a snow-covered alpine tundra. Here, the expedition lost five satellites – the accompanying-Tibetans and Mongolian lames who died from heart attacks and lung inflammation, always gathered a rich harvest on Tibet. Black memory left this edge from the artist who dreamed of finding here a storehouse of ancient knowledge.
All the people of this, black choirs, pushed like Nibelung. Sitting sitting, eating raw meat, covered with silent bonfires with fur caftans. Whisper: Piled the edge of unheedly snow. Our yaks will fall. There will be no zamba, our children will die and we will die. No one message can be believed. Everything is dead. All run from Tibet. People talk about the Lhasky government gloomy stories. Interpret and whisper about uprisings. Good only ruins of old Tibet. These ancient towers and walls folded some other people. They knew about Geeser Khan, and about the Vladyka Shambhala. The Ashrama of the Great Mahatm. But now nothing is it.
Roerich was not lucky: he fell on Tibet at that time when Dalai Lama XIII in the mid-1920s turned away from the British, who helped him to expel the Chinese in the past decade, and began to strengthen personal power. Lhasa expelled all the innovations introduced by Europeans: electricity, telegraph, cinema; And even cut hair was forbidden. Semi-dependent Panchen Lama, the second Hierarch of Lamaism, fled to China, and legends were associated with his flight. We do not know what time we know that the time to build solid state power is the smallest and vague, always permeated violence and lies.
Rumored that this Dalai Lama will be the last. And indeed, when he died in five years, he could not find a successor for a long time. The newly elected Dalai Lama XIV rules are not long – in 1959 he ran from the Chinese from Tibet, and for forty years later lives in exile.
But the artist was faithful to his task even in the fourty conditions: the northern Tibet tribes, the choir, strangely resemble some European types. There is nothing in them is neither Chinese nor Mongolian, nor Hindu. And, of course, a person who dedicated youth to the deepening in our older, could not pass by the ancient Indo-European parallels found in the mountains. In the terrain of Transgimalayev, called Doring – a long stone – obviously, from ancient mengirov, we met a completely unusual female headdress for Tibet. He was a brightly pronounced Slavic Kokoshnik, usually red, decorated with turquoise, silver coins and degraded beads. Nor to the north, nor to the south, the similar session was no longer met. Obviously, in this place there were remnants of some kind of special tribe. Their language is no different from other northern spoiled adverbs.
Many of the riddles of the ancient Tibet attracted the attention of Roerich, but later. Behind the ridge of the Nyancheng-tangla, famous powerful thermal sources, the valley is becoming more and more. Along the road under the tarpaulin cannons squeeze girls-Tibetki with Chinese thermos, offering Tibetan tea. All travelers consider a debt to mention him, as something exclusive. This tea is boiled, adding to it a lay oil, salt and soda – it has a coffee color and, indeed, very peculiar taste. But in fact, he is familiar with all nomads of Central Asia and their descendants, from Kalmykov and Pamir residents to Altaians and Buryat. He swings and saturates at the same time, which is important in the conditions of fuel deficiency and products.
The road is divided into the new town of Youngbagan: the left path lies on Lhasa, the ancient capital of the region, to the throne of the Dalai Lama, and to the right, through the pass, – to the west of West Shigatsze, the center of the Tszan region, the abdication of Panchen Lama, the second person in the spiritual hierarchy Tibet.
Lhasa is located in the wonderful, beautiful Valley of the river Kich, the influx of Tsangpo, at an altitude of three and a half kilometers. Here you understand that U-Zsan, ancient Tibet – the country of farmers. The gorge is broken, filling with white-bearing houses surrounded by poplars. Behind the turn appears, towering over the city, the famous Potala Palace – Alien, Sustainable, Unprecedented Building. Eighteen floors of three-way bulb heights in eighty meters – Residence of the Dalai Lama. Walls of the White Castle are encircled with central, dark red, in which there are both orphaned chambers of the Supreme Hierarch of Tibetan Yellow Buddhism.
At the foot of the hill are lost by several small factories, however, in the city center, an ultra-modern hotel complex, theater and other modern buildings rise in the city center.
Together with pilgrims in red hoods, on one of the three leading, stairs rose to the foot of the palace and in countless premises, the maze of sullen and low transitions is approaching simple, deprived of modern amenities for the rest of Chenzeri. So in Tibetan sounds the name of the twelve-class Avalokiteshwara, the reincarnation of the Buddha – the Savior of Tibet. Walls here are covered with picturesque tank icons. On the canvas depicted pages of Buddha’s lives, the paintings of the coming paradise – the abode of the Buddha Maitrey, portraits of the most revered Boddhisatv. There are statues of Chenzeri statues and his spouse – embodying the accommodation of Tara, and terrible doctors – guardians and defenders of Buddhism. Young brithead monks-novices in the dark red capes leafing the sacred books, continuously mumbling learned prayers and turning around the rosary of 108 grains. They are distracted only to bring the vessel to the vessel with holy fan oil, which are lubricated by the topics and lips. All monks get a salary as civil servants – there are no memories from the forbust economic independence and power of monasteries. On Tibet now only thousands of twenty monks, and it is ten times less than before.
By the way, full lias are moving away from foreigners a high fee for photographing the chambers, however, novices are more convict.
. In Potala, there are groups of the tombs of all Dalai Lam, except for the sixth – poet and amateur of women, dried and poisoned on the road by manzhzhurs. The most luxurious tombs – from gold, silver, precious stones – a really right country of the Dalai Lama XIII and Dalai Lama V, the most brilliant of all, in which in the XVII century, actually, was erected.
. In the era, the close to the top of the Romanov in Russia, the strongest in Tibet was Prince Shigatse, patronized by the old red-wing sect of Buddhists Karmapa (by the way, and created the ideology of rebirth lamas). Mongolian Khan under the pretext of the help of the Dalai Lama broke supporters of Karmapi, conquered wild valleys of Kama, where the Dobddian Vera Bon was influential, and in 1642 he took the strongest fortress Shigatsze. Here, in the Zhristochpoca monastery of Tashilongau, and there was a ceremony of transferring the Dalai lame of all power over Tibet. And three years later, the construction of the palace on one of the Lhasa hills, where the ruins of the Songlendar Tibetan Tsar-conqueror of Songzden-Gampo, who founded the city, were still preserved.
Four decades of rules Great Lama – Educated religious poet, writer and Tibetus. With the death of Mongolian Khan power the yellow sect over the country became unlimited. And they were also the yellow faith of Mongols, over which the spiritual power extended. But in the XVIII century China, Manyzhui Silay put Lhasa dependent on his emperor.
On the roof of the palace there is a walking area, from where the entire squat city is visible. Standard administrative and residential buildings of the Chinese part in the West, in the East – old three-story buildings of Tibetan architecture, the ancient temple of Jokhang – the focus of the spiritual life of Tibet.
In the biggest Tibetan holiday of the New Year, ending with the grand religious representation of the Mons, in the first half of this century, from the roof of the Potaly on the ropes, from a dizzying height and with a mad speed went to the city of acrobats. On the square, the dancing of Yak and Hunter, brought from Iran, the dance of Leo and many others. On rich houses, girls who performed songs and dancing for a treat. Racing and archery compete. And in Montlam, with the assistance of thousands of monks, Mysteries were performed about the ancient past Tibet and the coming of Buddhism.
Ancient Traditions Chama
. How tells the legend, bots, sedentary southern Tibetans, more shorter and mongoloid, originated from King Monkeys and Mountain Witch. From the Chinese chronicles it is known that militant nomads, high-grade and narrow-skinned – Kyans lived in the east, and in the north – nomads close to Sakam-Iranians, through which, according to legend, came the ancient black faith Bon-by.
The first foci of a settling culture was in the valley of the History south of Lhasa. There, somewhere in the V century, the Botov appeared the first sacred kings – Tsenpo, who were subjected to a ritual murder as soon as he became or when their eldest son reached maturity. They were a toy in the hands of nobility and priests. The body of the dead Tsangpo of the Dynasty threw into the water in a copper vessel or buried, returning to the source of life, in possession of the mountain witch Lou. The burial was accompanied by the murder of several of the most close to Tsenpo. The square graves of Tsenpo laid out a stone, buried the horse and weapons, put the throne in the chamber, on which the Golden Statue of Tsangpo and the Vessel was installed with his remains mixed with Cynicaria, and his treasures dumped before the throne. The house was constructed over the grave, climbed by trees and was considered the place of sacrifices. (Customs, by the way, very reminiscent of the funeral rolling of the ancient Organic tribes.)
. The famous king Songszn Gampo (613649) – the thirtieth. From his father, who was also the conqueror, he got the country covered by the uprisings, stretched for a thousand more than kilometers. Suppressing the recalcitable tribes, he moved to Lhasa. The working day of the first patron of Buddhism on Tibet took place in hard works: . Purifying eyes, sliced heads, limbs and other parts of people of people continuously appeared at the foot of the Iron Hill in Lhasa. Much time torn and war with their own advisers". Won Tibet, his wife, he demanded the Chinese princess, and, invading China, got her. There is a legend and about Nepalese princesses. Both brought Buddhist shrines, because, according to Buddhist tradition, struggling for a single state, Sonten Gampo tried to spread a new faith throughout Tibet. In principle, since the Buddha was born in neighboring Nepal, there is nothing surprising in this, but there are no evidence of contemporaries from China and India to this particular. At the same time, the king was created by Tibetan writing, borrowed from India, and were invited by Lekari from Persia and Byzantium, perhaps the foundations of the famous Tibetan medicine. It is believed that the king and his two wives did not die, but entered the Buddha statue brought by China, who was standing in the temple on the site of the current Joccang, just as the last imam-Shiites, who became in the rock.
One of the main acts of MONLAM is a sacred dance of cham, a ritual representation, executed by special acting groups. It tells about the exploits of patrons of Buddhism. Here in dark blue clothes with bright pink stripes, in the green mask, the bull with huge horns appears Lord of the death of the pit, around which the lord of the cemeteries are rotated in the vortex. Then the white elder comes – the rule of earth, the keeper of crops and herds with gray hair and in white clothes. On shift to him in bright clothes and black hats are Shanaki. Their mad dance – imitation of the nation of a monk – defender of faith, the killer of the Tsangpo-apostate, the evil king Langdarma. The presentation is accompanied by a kind of Tibetan orchestra consisting of drums (sometimes from skulls), pipes from the berth bones of criminals, bells, flutes and cymbal .
At the heart of this dance, intertwining among themselves, two legendary stories lie.
. Under the young king, Trysong Dezen (755-797), the state fired a powerful Minister of Majan Dompa, a supporter of the old religion Bon and the enemy of Buddhism. Majan pursued Buddhist monks and destroyed up. Mazhaan managed to remove from power, but in order not to shed blood, he was lured into the tomb and they inspired alive, where he died. Then Trysong Detsen called out of the Magic Budmadism of the famous preacher of tantric Buddhism, that is, practicing magical ways,. Unlike the philosophical Buddhism, who has denied violence, such a teaching of Tibetans had to do, and amounted to real competition to the sorcerers – the priests of Faith Bon. The first monastery was built. From these times, the oldest red-wing sect of Nyingmap is beginning, honoring Padmasambhawa more than Buddha.
Trysong Dezen entered the Tibetan legend in the form of the patron of Buddhism of Manjushri, and Majan, for the violence created by him on Tibet – in the form of the Lord of the Dead Jama. The eater mask with a bullish head in the theater of Mystery Cham is called Mashang .
. Buddhism was declared a state religion, supporters of faith Bon began to persecute. Meanwhile, Tibetans led successful wars with tangible rebellion of Tanging China, even captured the Chinese capital Changäyan and left large lands in the provinces adjacent to Tibet. These victories were immortalized in special inscriptions. His greatest power Tibet reached in the 9th century. His warriors won the Pamirs, in China and Burma, reached SAMARKAND.
However, the contradictions between veras and supporting ruling clicks were aggravated – Zenpo Darma came to power (836-842) on nicknamed Lang – Bull. They said that the node on the head of Langendar, who he tied instead of ordinary braid, shelters the horns. He suggested a Buddhist monk choices: to become butchers, hunters, murderers of living beings – or die themselves. The survivors fled to the outskirts. But one monk decided to sacrifice his salvation. To become like Bonskogo Priest, Lholung Dorcely changed clothes into black clothes, hid onions onions and an arrow and, approaching the king, struck him, then, taking advantage of the bombardment, changed his face to knock off his track, and rowed in Ampo Sons of Langendar The fight for the throne, and shortly before the time of the calling of Rurik on Russia, the Tibetan kingdom ceased to exist. Such is the essence of the second legend of the theater of Cham.
. On the modern streets of Lhasa, pilgrims are moving towards crowned gilded sunny wheel Dharma Temple Jokhang. On both sides, golden rams standing on her knees. The whole group in the sunlight shines so that the eyes hurt. According to legend, the temple has grown by the will of Songzden Gampo in the middle of the lake. In fact, the oldest parts repeatedly subsequently rebuilt buildings are not earlier than by the XIII century. In the past, in the first month of the New Year, Lama came here from all Tibetan monasteries.
Today, the pilgrims-Tibetans descended from the mountains in dirty clothes are still continuous flow goes to the temple. With one hand, turning over the rosary, the other, they continuously rotate clockwise prayer wheel – a metal drum on a short handle with a chain counterweight, through which an illiterate pilgrim reads prayers. (By God, Lamaism – the most mechanized religion in the world!) Bogomols move around the temple along the ring street, on which numerous merchants of clothing objects laid off their products right on the pavement, bronze bells, old coins, statuettes from fake ivory, ritual accessories, cigarettes, beer and many others. Immediately sit praying, coming by the eternal Manya PadME Hum!. A group of young monks on the team is planted on the ground, repeating it to infinity. Several people passing by young Chinese, Korch Grimasi, messenger Tibetans.
On a small prayer courtyard, the pilgrims accumulated here, and Lhastsey who came to pray. On the released place, they bind their knees, Wythe in front of a piece of fabric or skins, put on the hands of a dress-sandals and, dropping on his knees, slide forward on their hands until the NIC is missing on the stone slabs already polished by millions.
Bronze vessels with incenses are smoked at the entrance to the temple. In the courtyard – the queue of those who wish to worship the shrines, and aside, in a huge wiggy ritual boiler on all the Bogomols, Zsamba boiled. Among the crowds are distinguished by people in civilian clothes – these are police officers who follow the order in the temple after the excitement of the beginning of the decade.
On many Tibetans, traditional clothes: Kolata Chuba, together with the bogins and boots, previously made the only clothes of ordinary people (more wealthy pants and shirt and, accordingly, skirt). Women and today take themselves with turquoise, dischargeing misfortune, or coral. Before, noble guys wore turquoise earring in the ear. The current Tibetans instead adorn the teeth with a golden crown. The all-pervading smell of ferricular oil is thrown over the crowd: they are smeared face and body, protecting from skin seals, and women sprinkled with the sickness of the earth, creating the impression of full disgust to water.
Pilgrims and tourists are drawn into the dark insides of the temple. Luminaires are burning on the yoke oil, a terrible view of the figure of docks, defenders of faith, meet visitors.
The temple is decorated with carved wooden columns with capitals in the form of lion and dragon heads – an explicit brainchild of Indian architecture. Everywhere, red-haired mice: praying for a crop dressing, barley scatter on the altar. Here and abundantly incrouted by the gems of the shrine of the temple: monks guarded rudely made of copper, gold and silver Statue of the Sitting Young Buddha. Apparently, it belongs to the XV century, when the church resumed in the temple.
Above, in Kumurn, the Second Fame of Fame in Tibet Statue – Goddess Baldan Lhamo, sitting on Mule and Drinking from Skull. She is the embodiment of the vengeful struggle for the approval of Buddhist faith and punish the wicked rulers. From India, the goddess drove up to Siberia, where it settled on the Great Mount.
At the end of the last century, the Tibet had 2,500 GOMAP monasteries with 760 thousand monks, of which more than 1000 with half a million monks belonged to the dominant yellow-wing sect of Gelugpa, the rest – to the more ancient red wool and other sects. There was a custom on Tibet, according to which the younger brother went to the monastery and became Lama. While in Lhasa there were 40 thousand inhabitants surrounding her monasteries numbered over 20 thousand monks. During the cultural revolution in the 60s of the XX century, more than 90% of the monasteries were destroyed. But, as before, the division of various religious schools is preserved.
The Nyingmap sect in the most purest form kept the features of the tantrism of the left hand, recognizing the underlying world of the Women’s Beginning. In the magical practice of tantryism, the role of ritual televitations, especially hand gestures (wise – in Hydysk), special poses, continuously repeated spells, volitional yogic concentration, Hatha yoga training. All this was borrowed from India. Concentration and self-sufficiency were to contribute to special mandalas – symbols carved on a stone or stacked on paper. All this in his book Mystics and Magi Tibet in the first third of our century wrote an unusual woman, comprehended practicing the Tibetan Buddhism – the former French actress Alexander David Nael. Other sects (Sakya, Cageudp and Kadampa) include their foundation for the XI century, by the time of activity of students of the famous preacher of the classic Mahayan Buddhism Atishi, invited to Tibet at the beginning of the XI century from India. The restoration of the philosophical began Buddhism, cleansing from the presence of Bonskiy borrowing.
Finally, by the end of the XIV century, the base of the yellow-wing, truly monastic (that is, practitioner mandatory celibacy Lam), sects of Gelugpa.
Three Great Monasters around Lhasa occupied the supremacy in the yellowish sect: Drepung (Brybun) – a bunch of rice, Sir – Roshovnik and Galdan – executed joy (founded by Zhonhava himself). Like the three other Tibetan monastery – Tashilongau, Gumbum (one hundred thousand images), Lavran, founded by the disciples of Zhonhava. They were subsequently suffered, and some were destroyed.
In Drepung, the largest monastery of the world, previously lived eight-nine thousand monks. Cascade of white buildings resembling a huge palace, he descends from the mountain ten kilometers from the city. He really seems a hassle rice thrown between mountain revolts. The monastery was divided into many monastic corporations, who had headed her mentor, their temple and garden plot. Previously, massive doors stood the shutters in the shrollers and with sticks.
In the abode of the monks had housing according to their consistency, the poor were served rich. Only a few of the monks, in childhood, entered the monastery, learned to write and read. An even smaller number continued to education (which required money or outstanding abilities). Most performed black work.
The first real Dalai Lamas III came from among Drepung. The monastery included the famous Buddhist University, where he reached the highest degrees of scholarship, Buryat Agvan Dorzhiev, who became the adviser of the Dalai Lama XIII and on the verge of this century, not successfully concluded him to cooperate with Russia.
Now in the reconstructed, but 40% destroyed Brybun was every twenty fewer monks than before. As in all the main monasteries of Tibet, there is a committee of democratic governance, which observing the counter-revolutionary manifestations – he imposes among the monks of knocking, the truth that flourished in this environment and in the old time. To become Lama, Tibettsu must be enlisted with the recommendation of the local partner and obtain the resolution of the Mentioned Monastery Committee and the Committee of Public Security.
. Zzzhava was born in AMDO, in the terrain Pad Wild Luke – Zhonha, in 1357. Not eastern blonde, he came out of a large family, was taken to raising the lama and received a magnificent religious education. He traveled a lot on Tibet, studying with all famous mentors, and to thirty years old became the largest expertise. In life, he was compared with Boddhisatva. Zzzhava was not a reformer Buddhism he was a fundamentalist and returned Tibetan Buddhism to the origins. The sect-based sect differed in strict charter: it was forbidden to marry, the use of hot drinks, although the property was allowed. He created monastic schools, allowed to stamp new lamas. It was introduced more magnificent ritual, who attracted thousands of spectators (no wonder he organized a New Year’s holiday by Mons) in 1409). Tszonhava created the teachings of LamaZma, where the postulate is played by the postulate that the path to the salvation of Mierjanin is kept on the mentoring of the Monk Lama. In the yellow faith there is a paradise, and hell for sinners.
Girden Oak, Zhonhava’s student, in the middle of the XV century, in a hostile yellow-haired sect Shigazze, who founded the Tashilongau Monastery, will later be declared Dalai Lama I.
. Three kilometers from the city lies Sir Monastery, his colors – red and white. Three-storey buildings of traditional Tibetan architecture with a trapezoid wall and flat roe fenced by a low wall. Floors in front of the entrance to the temple grazing fat. Inside, young monks who read prayers are sitting between columns, rows (in total in the monastery about 300 inhabitants). Stacks of religious books go under the ceiling. Tibetan books are relatively narrow and long, the form of them is borrowed from Indian manuscripts on palm sheets, and they open up vertically, on bundles. Typography, or rather, xylographic seal with cut-out forms, appeared on Tibet from China earlier than in Europe. It was a religious merit, and in many monasteries were typography, made copies of full Buddhist canons to order and individual books for sale. It was an extremely laborious thing, so the creation of the most authoritative canon of the XVII century is associated with the name of the powerful Tibetan minister.
. However, reading books has long become optional – after all, they themselves have such a magical force that there is no need to disclose them. This force increases many times if silver was used, the fall of that – gold ink. Therefore, the books often abandoned the walls of idols or lay them into prayer stupas to give the more holiness.
The traditional canon Canjur, compiled in the XIV century, consisted of 108 books, and Gangesur (comments) – out of 225; For transportation of these meetings required forty mules.
In the center of the third hall – a prayer altar in the form of a multi-tiered stupa – Chorten, pyramids decorated with old weapons and statues. The monk watching the emerging not forget, putting on his knees, lower the head into a prayer niche at the base of Chorten.
Not far from Sir, at the foot of the mountain there is a large stone on which the traditional burial procedure of Orthodox Tibetans occurs. On this boulder, their corpses dissect, the graveters split the skulls and feed the remains of waiting for their hour with griffs and corners. The ominous procedure is partly reminded by the customs of the tears of silence of fireproof kids. There is a belief that if on such a stone ride naked, then you have been secured longevity. Dalai Lama XIII more than once did it, and probably therefore survived his predecessors for a long time, who never lived to adulthood, leaving power in the hands of regent mentors. Roerich on Tibet showed rings with spacing for poison and daggers with special grooves, explaining that whole families specialized in poisoning.
. The last, XIV Dalai Lama, Tenzing Gyandso, was born in AMDO in 1935. It is called on Tibet Eshi Norbu – Gemstone, acting. He climbed the throne, when the Chinese came to Tibet. Young Dalai Lama reconciled with the Communists and was educated in Beijing University. But the Chinese are systematically brought their orders. And when during a large hundreds of Major’s famine, resembling our Holodomor of the Age of Collectivization (then there were almost tens of millions of Chinese), in 1959, in Lhasa quickly deployed the uprising, Dalai Lama fled. He hid in the Indian resort of Dharmasala, taking off with him a multiple gold reserve of Dalai Lam. About 80 thousand people ran with him. In Dharmassale, Dalai Lama XIV lives and today, having struggle for the liberation of Tibet, which he no longer belongs to which a large grouping of the People’s People’s Army is quartered there.
. The road on Shigatsze goes through the Pass on the southern Okroggy Nyancheng-Tangla Ridge, right under the seven-thousandth snowy peak over her. Along the road, the ruins of mandons – long, isolated from the stone of the shafts, once decorated with prayer inscriptions.
On the pass, the Larz can be seen – pile of stones with a sixth and hanging on the tensioned ropes with prayer flags. This is the embodiment of ancient custom – paying for the passage of Nyan the Divities of the mountains and rocks, the most powerful of which were the formidable perfume of the highest peaks of Jomolungma and Kanchenjangi. I am angry, they appeared in the form of infrequent ghosts from the fog, and the grief was those who caused this anger! Lou – inhabitants of river and lakewater, were more merciful. Tsan – Aerial riders and hunters, sometimes took the type of hurricanes. Sadagi possessed the land – of them were the most important were Nang Lha, the inner deity of the house, and the Gab Lha, the spirit of a near fire, which was scary to annoy the disregard, because he was only the protection of man in the mountains in the mountains. Spirits-defenders surrounded every person, two of them were located on his shoulders, and to hit a person, it was necessary to sap them.
. Monasteries Bon – Black Faith, hostile Buddha – cause curiosity. In the black faith, as in black Messe, the rituals of the Buddhist faith are repeated exactly, but on the contrary. If Buddhists bypass the temple from left to right, then bonpo do it in the opposite direction. If the swastika from Buddhists is turned through the Sun, then the Bon is turned in the opposite direction. They have their own saints and their sacred books. They invented their special patron instead of the Buddha, and if you get acquainted with the biography of this legendary patron, then, to amazement, detect the same details and incidents as in the life of the Buddha: he also took place from the royal kind. Coupons do not allow Buddhists to enter their temples and recognize neither the Dalai Lama nor the Tashi Lama. For them, Dalai Lama is only a secular ruler collecting taxes, so recorded Roerich.
It seems incredible that in Tibetan books contain reliable information about such ancient peoples and countries, about events, the mention of which is not preserved in any other sources, and which historians could only guess. But it is Tibet and was a stagnant angle, where new knowledge did not have time to oust the old.
Divine Eternal Sky (Tangri) and the goddess Earth-Mother came to Tibetans and Mongols (also professed black faith) from ancient Iranians.
Shigazze city is located at an altitude of 3900 meters above sea level, and with good condition, the road from Lhasa comes here for the day. Center for the Green Valley of Tsan, he is an ancient rival of the Tibetan capital. On the rock over the city used to be the most powerful Tibetan Fortress Samdup Dzong. The era of the cultural revolution left only the foundation of the castle and a huge black inscription on one of the rocks, noticeable from the city center: a total of educated!
But the famous monastery of Tashilongpo (Massocovenaya), the residence of the Panchenhals, which are also called Tasha Lamami, has been preserved much better than other monasteries. And what were the reasons. In ancient times, the rebels of the jerking monastery more than once were forced to escape in Lhasa from the red hats. But since the Dalai Lama V, who announced the abbot of Tashilongovo, the reborn of the amitab, the Buddha of the Infinite Light, the need for it disappeared. The Chinese diligently focused on ambitions and rivalry of higher hierarchs. It so happened that throughout the current century, Panchen Lama was supported by the Chinese, so a very authoritative ninth pawned, fearing the revenge of the Dalai Lama XIII, fled to China, where he died, and the tenth, three decades later, entered Tibet, together with people The liberation army of China.
After the flight of the current Dalai Lama, it was he who achieved the championship in the official system of the Tibetan Autonomous Region, and later – post in the National People’s Assembly.
Stereotypical block buildings from all sides surrounded the old Tibetan city, attached to the entrance to the monastery. The gate of Tashilongau Lama requires foreign tourists a solid MZDU for the entrance. White-red grudges of the walls inspire respect – no monastery of Lhasa did not have such wealth as a residence of Panyon. But now there are less than a thousand monks, including novices.
. Jambachenum Tower (Maitrei Temple), exactly the fortress, raises over the monastery, by the ominous irony erected on the eve of the First World War, who overturned the world in the bunch of future disasters of the XX century. Inside there is the largest twenty-sester-meter statue of the Buddha of the coming, squeezing on the lotus. Skillful work of masters confirms the glory of Zlatokuznets Shigatse. The radiance falling out of the windows of the seventh tier illuminates the peaceful face of the giant.
Panchen-Lam, like Dalai Lam, Mummify – The Palace is their grave stups, the most luxurious of them – the grave of the eighth pannch, ascended by the three-story height of silver and gilding, decorated with semi-precious stones.
Huge, in nine floors high, a special wall-screen is used for hanging during a three-day summer holiday harvest, when thousands of pilgrims flock into the monastery, cloth with images of the Buddha of the past, current and upcoming. Previously, at this time, special officials went around the fields accompanied by archers, the shooting of the onion distinguvented evil spirits.
In the large halls of the monastery in the past times, printers, weaver, chasokers worked. It was not without reason that the English merchant William Bog arrived here in 1774, bringing a tempting offer of the conqueror of India Warren Hastings to establish mutually beneficial trade. But the Manchurian Ambag in Lhasa ordered an alien to send the ravoisi. And later, in 1791, those who captured, not without the help of the British, Nepal, militant Gurkkhi invaded Tibet, took Shigatse and plundered Tashilongau. And only the Manchurian army knocked them out from there. Manchuri suspected the British in the persistent desire to take away Tibet to hand, and since then two more than two centuries, the country was closed for an inner.
But another secret of Tibet was tied in this city. . Unusually importance for Asia the mysterious word Shambala. And in large Asian centers, where the sacred concepts are pronounced with a smooth loaf, and in the vast deserts of the Mongolian Gobi, the word about the Great Shambal or the mysterious Kalapa of the Hindus sounds like a symbol of the Great Future. – so wrote N.TO.Roerich.
Talk about the last battle of Shambhala with evil. In the white gallery on the yellow rug, Lariva, Lama-artist from Shigatsze. On a particularly prepared canvas, he drew a complex composition. In the middle depicted powerful Lord Shambhala. Below was the brutal battle. Dark enemies of righteous lord were mercilessly affected. The picture was decorated with the following dedication: Narrow Rigden, Vladyka North Shambhala. Everything foreshadows the onset of the Shambhala era.
Since ancient times, only in a few, especially enlightened monasteries were educated schools Shambhala. In Tibet, the main place of reverence Shambhala is considered to be Tashilong.
What is this mysterious, the Forbidden Country of the Great Wise men – Mahatm, is hardly ruling with the whole world, but invisible to the uninitiated? The answer is amazing, and he lies again in the unprofitability of the information of the ancient era, preserved on this absolute (at altitudes) of the periphery of the world.
L.N.Gumilev, decrypting the ancient Tibetan map of Shambhala, published by Lamamy emigrants, discovered a lot of familiar for the historian of ancient names. The map, as it turned out, reflects the era of the domination inherited Alexander the Macedonian Dynasty of Seleucidov, who reign in Syria, Persian Sham. The word bolo indicates the top, surface. Shambala – Syria’s domination. To lead about the power and valid prosperity of the Power of Seleucadov in the III-II centuries. to N.NS. to get to Tibet, through Greco Bactria (Northern Afghanistan). The merchants reported to lead about the bright, cheerful life of an ancient antioch, the capital of Seleucidov. Later, these news were imposed on the citizens who came from India about the Northern Chegimalayan countries, the habitats of the Holy Rishis – Hermits. So born legend about Shambhala.
Road on Gyanatze
In a hundred kilometers to the southeast lies the ancient shopping city of Gyangatse. The road walks along the village of Tibet, green from the crown valley. The village of Highlands, as a rule, is small – no more than a dozen of the stone or the turf bricks of houses, coated clay, with a flat roof, covered with a pussy or straw. Nearby – Long Stone Cattle Fences.
. In one of the villages there was a crowd. Women are smashed into traditional outfits: Headwear in the form of arcuate frames, decorated with turquoise, long sleeveless bathrobes, tied by susaks, from under which long shirt sleeves are dried and on top of which the aprons from household matter in blue, red, green and yellow transverse stripes are dried. Men in the cloth chubs of dirty and white color with a standing collar and wide sleeves, smelted to the right and more long-term than that of cattle breeders. Above the belt with a bathrobe, he replaces pockets. Poor people have a cup for jambs and other subjects. At all – the cloth boots on the felt sole, in women – embroidered. Probably, this is some kind of celebration, most likely the wedding.
But the bride is brided on horseback: she peels at the door of the groom and, by going the threshold, it comes to the skin, covering the traditional grain bag – it should bring prosperity. However, the family and so wealthy is most likely the local authorities.
Wedding Pier is decorated with traditional dishes: In addition to the casual jambs of a roasted barley flour and oil, which is eating, rolling into balls (to taste, she resembles a piece of dough, impregnated with exhausted beer), Favorite all boiled lamb, Yatug (caszba porridge, lamb and dried milk – City Food), Patue – Flour Balls, Welded in Boujong Boulevard, Zhahatug – Noodles with Lamb, Tibetan Sausage, Stipped in Blood, Liver and Tszamba, Vegetables, Pies. Chang – strong, but not drunk beer, and Arak – barley vodka. Drinking add-on here is not considered to be acknowledged.
Previously, the distribution of monasses gave rise to extreme freedom of morals: no one asked a lonely mother, where she had a child, although the infidelity of married women was strictly strict. Probably, the same reasons are also explained by the fact that the overwhelming majority of Tibet residents suffered from venereal diseases to the arrival of the Chinese.
. But here and Gyanatze – located at the crossroads of trading roads and decorated with the castle – Dzong XIV century and the monastery of the Phone on the slope of the mountain. Since ancient times, caravans loaded with eggs and sheep wool were held here, heading south. Since then, the art of rowing.
Pohkor forms an amphitheater on the sunny slope of the mountain facing Nepal. The area of Chenium occupies a huge Pagoda of the XV century in the Nepalese style. The cylindrical chapels are on a multi-tiered base, on top of which vertically installed parallelepiped with huge eyes drawn by eyes observing all parts of the world. Inside the wall covered with paintings depicting different stages of the life of the Buddha. New Chinese city is inferior to the old Tibetan quarters near the monastery. Close houses from white limestone, painted with bright patterns and ribbons. White walls are tilted inside, windows, definitely loopholes, circled with a black stripe – a stingy decoration of high mountain architecture. Inside these houses reign dirt and uncertainty – the Chinese with their winding trains with all the base can consider themselves to be purely. Wagons driving on dusty streets – the phenomenon of the 20th century: the wheel transport during the ladies of the board was prohibited. Yes, however, and whether it was possible to leave on the mountain paths?
One of the dramatic pages of the new Tibetan history is connected with Gyanjzze. The British whose possessions approached almost close to the country of Lam, were vividly interested in her. From the mid-1860s, Pandits, specially trained agents-topographers, mostly from ethnic Tibetans who lived in the British side of the Himalayas, were elegant with their routes of Tibet space.
When they reached them to lead that the European, our researcher. M. Przhevalsky, in 1880, passing Tibet from the north, was stopped only less than two hundred kilometers from Lhasa, they realized that their monopolies come to an end. The second call for them was sounded when photographs made in Lhasa in 1900 by the our scientist Buryat Gombojab Tsybikov, visited under the guise of pilgrim in many Tibet monasteries and met with the young Dalai Lama XIII.
. The pretext for the British was the information about visiting St. Petersburg by the Mission of the Buryat Lama Agwan Dorzhiev, the Messenger of Dalai Lama. And that was not the first trip to Petersburg, here he was even before the journey of Tsybikova, secretly.
Then, in 1903, the British sent a thousandth of the colonial troops, headed by the famous researcher, Colonel Francis Yanghasbored. He invaded Tibet, and under the fortress of Gyanatze, where the British waited for the five thousandths of a different Tibetan army, a decisive battle occurred. English officers, approaching allegedly for negotiations, snatched revolvers and shot Tibetan generals. The case was completed by the thrown on the persecution of the cavalry. In Lhasa, the British dictated the conditions of the branch trade agreement, according to which Tibet opened only for them. And after the death of Dalai Lama XIII and before the departure from India in 1947, Tibet became increasingly falling under the British influence. Then the Chinese army came and everything changed sharply.
Campa – the inhabitants of the eastern field of Kam, which occupied, as mentioned first, the mountainous West of the province of Sichuan and East of the Tibetan Autonomous Area, have a reputation of the people of bandits, seized thugs and at the same time exemplary families and people who are not alienating the concepts of honor. High growth and in the devils of their little mongoloid, they are descendants of ancient militant kyanov. The maze of wooden houses of Kangding – the main city of the region – sketched by the walls of the valley lying on the height of two and a half kilometers. The city is surrounded by several Buddhist monasteries.
In mountain villages behind Kangding, old three-story Tibetan houses-fortresses are preserved, some with towers. These land are inhabited by the most numerous DEGE tribe, and in the middle of this century they are the rules inhabited in the castle of Princess! Endless chains of pointed mountain peaks are waxually rushed into the distance, lost in a gray-violet haze, exactly frozen at the moment of the storm gray-green sea with raising powerful icebergs .
This is the green part of the Tibet, the valleys are covered with forests.
In the middle of summer, when the meadows bloom, in the yield holiday season, women are discharged into their best decorations, and men wear long daggers in the local production of sheaths with silver chasing. Racing rings on yoke, shooting in the goal of onion. At this time, tents beyond the city not only nomads, but also the townspeople. And coming solemnings in monasteries, the solemn tranquility of which sharply contrasts with noisy street festivals.
It should be noted that in 1899-1901, the Geographical Expedition of Peter Kozlov was conducted in Kame. His detachment had to withstand even a few bloody skins in the mountains. He enriched the domestic science, as well as the Martographic Department of the General Staff, extensive and most valuable information. He also noted the hatred of the dark urban mortension to the ingenians – pinline.
In a dynamically developing China, the changes apparently reached the most deaf angles. Therefore, it is possible to find the islands of almost unchanged Tibetan culture, perhaps only beyond. Far from Lhasa, in the south-west of Nepal, lies the valley of dolpo.
This valley, inhabited by ethnic Tibetans, was opened only forty years ago. Two centuries have passed since after expansion Gurkchov, she moved to Nepal, and since then little has changed in local customs: the fire is still mined here with silicon and sacchal. The valley lies in two weeks of the way from the nearest road, and you can get into it, only one hundred and two five thousand pass.
DOPO bred livestock and engaged in terraced agriculture, but a scant harvest is unable to feed them. Recalling exchange trading. In the summer, men with swords in silver-chased DAGE sheaths are sent with a caravan to Tibet, to salt lakes, changing two bags of salt on the grain bag, and in winter they are already getting eight bags in Nepal. This is enough to prepare Pak Zsamba, welded in Tibetan tea. It is diverse a potato, chowder from noodles, dried meat, cheese, and in summer – sour milk. Life would be impossible here without yaks, giving clothes, food, accommodation, fuel and employees of woven transport.
With winter night twenty-fi-degree frosts, men and women sleep in the tents of Nagishm, under woolen capes and warmly.
While men travel with caravans, women stay at home. Children are torn here from the chest in three or four years. Those women who did not have children went to the mountains, found the White Rock, taking a stone on the hands, went around the rock and, holding him like a baby, descended down, hoping that their efforts would be inconsistent.
Features of local matrimonial relations are interesting to describe. One of the local women, Ciring Palo, could not get a divorce, as it was supposed to pay compensation for the Son, which remained with her husband. Her father died, to help her had no one. Together with his lover Tsevang, she decided to go to Earnings to India for three years. It was pretty boldly on the part of a woman who could not even read (no one, except Lam, can not be here). The accumulated money allowed her to divorce all customs.
. Tsevang offered younger brother karma to share his bed with her – it was in the order of things, especially since one, then another of the brothers was constantly in the road. When Karma brought a young wife, he could no longer sleep with cinging, but she continued to take care of him as a native. The fact that the young child was considered the common son of all four, like the fact that her ex-husband slept with his son’s wife – it is undoubtedly a relic of more ancient era. And this, by the way, was characteristic of old our patriarchal families – when married sons remained in the father’s house.
Although VOLO consider themselves Buddhists, however, magic aimed against malicious spirits remains an important means of survival in the world, where heavy climatic conditions and the lack of hygiene take half of children in infancy. Of course, prayers and sacrifices of Lam play an important role. However, the best way to expuls the demons of the demons is considered to be archery. This ancient, Dobdudian custom is called yes smoke – Exile demons arrows.
And shortly before the departure of the caravan, it was decided to hold this ceremony. Morning came, and a dozen archers installed two targets from bamboo, depicting a daemon-bull, whose heart symbolized the sheep. Before making a rite, everyone sat down, putting Luke in front of him, opposite the sorcerer-shaman (BONPO) on the edge of the barley field and reinforced the Tibetan beer. Sorcerer urged local deities to send arrows accurately in target. And so, with solemn exclamations, the archers are in combat position, and the battle cry is aware of the peaceful valley – this is a game seriously.
In Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, lives and today, a young Tibetan artist Tenzing Narbu, whose roots are located in the edges close to Dolovo. At the beginning of this century, his grandmother’s parents fled from Kama (Eastern Tibeta), where the Chinese invaded, far to the west, to the Tolling Monastery area, located in the springs of the sacred for Hindus Kailas Range, north-west of Dolovo. There the girl saw Lama-artist, much older her, and they got married. Tolding father also became a talented artist, drawing tanks – paintings on religious plots, and old Lama all dedicated himself to religion. Tetrol since childhood surrounded the mountains, sky, picturesque figures of the caravanchers passing through the monastery. He early began to draw what he saw around. Noticing this, his father began to teach her son to professional skill. Tanks are drawn in special canons, each character is given a certain expression of the person, the posture, painting (only clean colors are used, without halftones transition), although the artist remains a certain degree of freedom. By sixteen, the Father acknowledged his superiority, and the tension, in turn, became the barefoot (Lariva) – a professional Tibetan artist.